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Shapiro Library

MLA Style: Basics

This guide is intended to help you cite sources in MLA style, avoid plagiarism, learn what MLA style is and includes, find examples of MLA style, lead you to campus resources that can help you cite sources in MLA, and more.

Indirect work

IMPORTANT! See note about the hanging indent requirement on the left-bottom of the page.


General Format

(qtd. in Author page#)


For Example

(qtd in Berine 450).


Corresponding Works Cited entry

Beirne, Logan. Blood of Tyrants : George Washington & the Forging of the Presidency. Encounter Books, 2013. EBSCOhost,

See notes ¹, ²


¹ The MLA Handbook (8th edition), p. 124 states that you should use the original source if you can find it.  However, if you need to cite an indirect source, as the manual refers to secondary sources, if what you quote or paraphrase is itself a quotation, put the abbreviation qtd. in (“quoted in”) before the indirect source you cite in your parenthetical reference. (You may wish to clarify the relation between the original and secondhand sources in a note.)

² You will include the indirect source in the Works Cited page and the entry will follow the format of whatever source it is (e.g. if it is a book follow the book citation examples, etc.).