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NUR 550 - Evidence-Based Practice and Scholarly Inquiry

This Library Research Guide is intended to help you identify and locate scholarly and non-scholarly resources (books, articles, etc.) on the subject of evidence-based practice, scholarly research, appraising evidence, APA citation.

Evidence-based practice


Evidence-based practice is the process by which healthcare providers incorporate the best research or evidence into clinical practice in combination with clinical expertise and within the context of patient values.


Evidence-based practice evolved out of an explosion of scientific literature and new techniques, medications, and technologies. Medical facilities were faced with rising medical costs and increased litigation, and consumers were calling for accountability in medicine. The medical profession began to seek new ways to insure quality control of medical care. Basing medical procedures and practices on sound research became the means to find the best philosophical, legal, and practical fit for medical institutions and individual patients. Read more in The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing This link opens in a new window

Franz, J. F., & Cataldo, L. J., RN, EdD. (2018). Evidence-Based Practice. In J. L. Longe (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health (4th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 1380-1384). Gale.

Seven Steps of Evidence-Based Practice


  1. Cultivate a Spirit of Inquiry Within an EBP Culture and Environment
  2. Formulate the Burning Clinical PICOT Question
  3. Search for the Best Evidence
  4. Critical Appraisal of Evidence
  5. Integrate the Evidence With Clinical Expertise and Patient/Family Preferences to Make the Best Clinical Decision
  6. Evaluate the Outcomes of the Practice Change Based on Evidence
  7. Disseminate the Outcomes of the Evidence-Based Practice Change

The seven steps are outlined in Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare by Melnyk and OverHolt

Models for Implementation

There are differing definitions of what a model is and can simply be stated that it is a representation of reality or even an easy way of organizing difficult and involved ideas. Models should be viewed as "conceptual tools or devices that can be used by an individual to understand and place complex phenomena into perspective" (McKenna & Slevin, 2011, p. 108).   The following is a list of possible models that address implementing evidence-based nursing or evidence-based practice:

Models for Implementation

The following is a list of some of the EBP models that address implementing evidence-based practice plan


Full APA Citation

Name of Model

1976, 1994, 2001

Stetler, C. (2001). Updating the Stetler Model of Research Utilization to facilitate evidence-based practice. Nursing Outlook, 49(6), 272-279.

Stetler Model of Evidence Based Practice (also previously known as: Stetler/Marram Model of Research Utilization, Stetler Model of Research Utilization)


Stevens, K. R. (2004). ACE Star Model of knowledge transformation. Academic Center for Evidence-Based Practice, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. Retrieved from

ACE Star Model of Knowledge Transformation

1998, 2004

Logan, J., & Graham, I. D. (1998). Toward a comprehensive interdisciplinary model of health care research use. Science Communication, 20(2), 227.

Graham, K., & Logan, J. (2004). Using the Ottawa Model of Research use to implement a skin care program. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 19(1), 18-26.

Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU)

2002, 2004

Melnyk, B. (2002). Evidence-based practice. Strategies for overcoming barriers in implementing evidence-based practice. Pediatric Nursing, 28(2), 159-161.

Fineout-Overholt, E., Levin, R., & Melnyk, B. (2004). Strategies for advancing evidence-based practice in clinical settings. Journal of The New York State Nurses Association, 35(2), 28-32.

Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration (ARCC) model 


Brown, C. G. (2014). The Iowa model of evidence-based practice to promote quality care: An illustrated example in oncology nursing. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 18(2), 157-159. doi:10.1188/14.CJON.157-159

Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality Care


Harvey, G., & Kitson, A. (2016). PARIHS revisited: from heuristic to integrated framework for the successful implementation of knowledge into practice. Implementation Science, 11(33).

Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services Framework (PARIHIS) Revisited


Dang, D. & Dearholt, S. L. (2022). Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Fourth Edition: Model and Guidelines: Vol. Fourth edition. Sigma Theta Tau International.

The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Model

(DeNisco, 2021; Melinyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019; Polit & Beck, 2019)

Evidence-Based Nursing: Translating Research Evidence into Practice

This video from SAGE provides an overview of Evidence-Based Nursing This link opens in a new window.

Duke Health Tutorial on Evidence-Based Practice

Built in conjunction

Part 1 of 7 modules available. Access the rest of the modules through the Duke University website This link opens in a new window.