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HIS 100 - Perspectives in History

Tulsa Massacre, Wounded Knee Occupation, Stonewall Rebellion, Haitian Independence, Philippine Revolution, Iranian Revolution, The Great London Smog, Creation of Earth Day, Chernobyl, Creation of the UN, Act Prohibiting Slavery, Founding of NATO

Philippine Revolution (1896-1898)

(Please note, encyclopedias/tertiary sources should NOT be cited in your assignment. Scroll down for primary and secondary sources).

The Philippine Revolution began in 1896 as a rebellion against brutal Spanish rule that spanned over three centuries from the time Ferdinand Magellan led an expedition to the island in the early 1560s to the establishment of a full Spanish colony. Spain restricted Filipino religious rights and political participation in their own governance and enforced harsh trade restrictions. Andrés Bonifacio led the secret society, Katipunan, whose goal was to create an independent Philippines. The group was unprepared militarily to take on Spain when it began to revolt in response to the Spanish execution of key leaders and priests. Katipunan split into factions, one of which was led by Emilio Aguinaldo who ultimately executed Bonifacio and took over the revolution. Spain and the Philippine rebels came to a cease-fire in 1898. However, simultaneously, Spain sank a U.S. warship near Cuba, leading to the U.S. declaring war on Spain and entering the Philippine rebellion against Spain. Ultimately when Spain and the US established peace, the U.S. purchased and colonized the Philippines causing the Filipino rebels to continue fighting against the U.S. The Philippines didn't ultimately achieve independence until 1946.

Primary Sources

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Utilizing etchings, paintings, an official seal, legal tender, and other primary sources, this webpage from the Philippine Folklife Museum Foundation sponsored by the Philippine Consulate General in San Francisco, CA, explains the history and role of Andres Bonifacio in the “Filipino Revolution of 1896,” dubbed the “architect and father of the first revolution in Asia.” He formed a secret society called the Katipunan in 1892 which focused people’s protests for nationalist goals of freedom, independence, and equality. The under-armed Katipunan suffered defeat against the Spanish while another revolutionary group led by Emilio Aguinaldo fared better. Aguinaldo ultimately became the first president of the independent Philippines, after accusing Bonifacio of treason and having him executed, only to surrender in 1901 to the United States at the end of the Philippine-American War, and not realize his dream of Philippine independence until 1946.

In this political cartoon, President William McKinley is about to swat "insurgent Aguinaldo," a mosquito, as other "insurgent" mosquitoes prepare to attack him. In 1896, Filipino nationalists revolted against Spain in the Philippine Revolution, largely organized by the militant Katipunan group, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, who emerged as prominent military and political leader.

Secondary Sources

This article by an historian at Loyola discusses the purported causes of the Philippine Revolution and then makes the case that nationalism and liberalism were at the root of the Revolution, and not just insurrection against the three centuries of Spanish rule. Nationalism developed as a result of Catholicism and advanced education of the Filipino people.

This article reviews the historiography of the Philippine Revolution and its omission of the role of women in mainstream historical accounts. It then highlights a number of Filipino women heroes from the Revolution. Lastly, it analyzes what criteria determine official and popular perceptions of women’s participation in revolutions.