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RN-BSN Library Guide

Use this Library Research Guide to help locate evidence-based resources including articles, information on research appraisal, statistics, evidence translation, clinical practice tools, informatics and professional resources.

Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing

Evidence-based practice or EBP, is a process "which involves defining a clinical situation of interest, formatting a good clinical question, conducting a literature search (i.e. finding the evidence), reading and critiquing researching findings or published research reports (or both) and deciding if the 'evidence' warrants a change in practice" (Godshall, 2015, p.xii). 

Godshall, M. (2015). Fast facts for evidence-based practice in nursing, second edition : implementing ebp in a nutshell. Retrieved from

What is Evidence-based Practice?

Evidence-Based Practice is clinical expertise, best research evidence, and patient values

Evidence-based practice is "the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of the individual patient. It means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research." 

Evidence-based practice is also a process that begins and ends with the patient

Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't This link opens in a new windowBMJ. 1996;312(7023):71-72.

Overview Resources

Searching for Evidence

Systematic Review, Meta-analysis and Clinical Practice Guidelines

The following table can be used to help understand the differences between these summary methodologies. One way to use the table is to begin with the headings on top and create the table interactively with the learners answering questions about the different types of studies.


Models for Implementation

There are differing definitions of what a model is and can simply be stated that it is a representation of reality or even an easy way of organizing difficult and involved ideas. Models should be viewed as "conceptual tools or devices that can be used by an individual to understand and place complex phenomena into perspective" (McKenna & Slevin, 2011, p. 108).   The following is a list of possible models that address implementing evidence based nursing or evidence based practice:

Models for Implementation
Year Full APA Citation Name of Model
1976, 1994, 2001

Stetler, C. (2001). Updating the Stetler Model of Research Utilization to facilitate evidence-based practice. Nursing Outlook, 49(6), 272-279. This link opens in a new window

Stetler Model of Evidence Based Practice (also previously known as: Stetler/Marram Model of Research Utilization, Stetler Model of Research Utilization)

Brown, C. G. (2014). The Iowa model of evidence-based practice to promote quality care: An illustrated example in oncology nursing. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 18(2), 157-159. doi:10.1188/14.CJON.157-159 This link opens in a new window

Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality Care

Stevens, K. R. (2004). ACE Star Model of knowledge transformation. Academic Center for Evidence-Based Practice, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. Retrieved from This link opens in a new window

ACE Star Model of Knowledge Transformation
1998, 2004

Logan, J., & Graham, I. D. (1998). Toward a comprehensive interdisciplinary model of health care research use. Science Communication, 20(2), 227. This link opens in a new window

Graham, K., & Logan, J. (2004). Using the Ottawa Model of Research use to implement a skin care program. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 19(1), 18-26. This link opens in a new window

Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU)
2002, 2004

Melnyk, B. (2002). Evidence-based practice. Strategies for overcoming barriers in implementing evidence-based practice. Pediatric Nursing, 28(2), 159-161. This link opens in a new window

Fineout-Overholt, E., Levin, R., & Melnyk, B. (2004). Strategies for advancing evidence-based practice in clinical settings. Journal of The New York State Nurses Association, 35(2), 28-32. This link opens in a new window

Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration (ARCC) model 

Source citation: McKenna, H., & Slevin, O. (2011). Vital notes for nurses : nursing models, theories and practice. Retrieved from